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Philip Bespalov
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BS 6093 PDF: The Essential Standard for Building Joints and Jointing - Free Download



BS 6093 pdf free download: A guide to design of joints and jointing in building construction




If you are involved in building construction, you know how important it is to design and construct joints properly. Joints are the connections between different parts of a building, such as walls, floors, roofs, windows, doors, etc. They have to perform various functions, such as transferring loads, accommodating movements, preventing water ingress, enhancing aesthetics, etc. Poorly designed or executed joints can lead to structural failures, leaks, cracks, noise, corrosion, etc.




Bs 6093 Pdf Free Download



That's why you need a reliable and comprehensive guide to help you with the design of joints and jointing in building construction. And that's exactly what BS 6093 is. BS 6093 is a British standard that provides guidance on the design of joints and jointing in building construction. It covers a wide range of topics, such as functional requirements, design processes, joint types, jointing materials, solutions for external walls and roofs, accommodation of movement, assembly, installation and maintenance.


BS 6093 was first published in 1981 and has been revised several times since then. The latest version is BS 6093:2006. It is a valuable resource for architects, engineers, contractors, manufacturers, suppliers and inspectors who deal with joints and jointing in building construction.


But how can you get access to BS 6093 pdf for free? Well, there are some websites that offer free downloads of BS 6093 pdf. However, you have to be careful about the quality and legality of these downloads. Some of them may be outdated, incomplete or pirated copies that may not comply with the official standard. Therefore, it is advisable to use only trusted sources that provide authentic and updated versions of BS 6093 pdf.


One such source is this link, which provides a free download of BS 6093:2006 pdf from the website of Hong Kong Engineering Services Department. This is a legitimate copy that has been licensed by the British Standards Institution (BSI) and is uncontrolled for personal use only. You can download it by clicking on the link and saving the file to your device.


Another source is this link, which provides a free preview of BS 6093:2006 pdf from the website of GlobalSpec, a leading provider of engineering information and tools. This is a partial copy that allows you to view the table of contents, foreword, scope, normative references and terms and definitions of the standard. You can view it by clicking on the link and registering for a free account.


However, if you want to access the full version of BS 6093:2006 pdf, you have to purchase it from the official website of BSI or from other authorized distributors. The price of the standard is 246.00 for members and 492.00 for non-members. You can buy it by clicking on this link and following the instructions.


Design of joints




The design of joints is a complex and critical process that requires careful consideration of various factors, such as functional requirements, design processes, joint types, joint mechanisms, joint performance and joint durability. BS 6093 provides a systematic and comprehensive approach to the design of joints, as shown in Figure 1.



Figure 1 - Joint design flow chart


Functional requirements




The functional requirements of joints are the essential criteria that joints have to meet in order to perform their intended functions. BS 6093 identifies four main functional requirements for joints:



  • Structural: Joints have to transfer loads between different parts of a building, such as dead loads, live loads, wind loads, seismic loads, etc. Joints have to resist shear, tension, compression, bending, torsion, etc.



  • Movement: Joints have to accommodate movements between different parts of a building, such as thermal expansion and contraction, moisture expansion and shrinkage, creep and relaxation, settlement and subsidence, etc. Joints have to allow for expansion, contraction, sliding, rotation, etc.



  • Environmental: Joints have to prevent water ingress and egress between different parts of a building, such as rainwater, groundwater, surface water, etc. Joints have to prevent air leakage and infiltration between different parts of a building, such as draughts, noise, dust, pollutants, etc. Joints have to prevent heat loss and gain between different parts of a building, such as conduction, convection, radiation, etc.



  • Aesthetic: Joints have to enhance the appearance and visual quality of a building, such as colour, texture, pattern, shape, size, etc. Joints have to harmonize with the architectural style and design concept of a building.



Design processes




The design processes for joints are the logical steps that designers have to follow in order to achieve the functional requirements of joints. BS 6093 recommends four main design processes for joints:



  • Data collection: This involves gathering all the relevant information and data that affect the design of joints, such as site conditions, building materials and systems, structural analysis and calculations, movement predictions and measurements, environmental factors and regulations, aesthetic preferences and standards, etc.



  • Data analysis: This involves evaluating and interpreting the data collected in order to identify the problems and challenges that need to be solved by the design of joints. This also involves establishing the performance criteria and specifications for joints based on the functional requirements.



  • Solution generation: This involves generating possible solutions for joints based on the data analysis. This also involves selecting the most appropriate joint types and mechanisms for each situation and location.



  • Solution evaluation: This involves testing and verifying the solutions generated for joints based on the performance criteria and specifications. This also involves checking the compatibility and feasibility of the solutions with respect to the building materials and systems.



Joint types




The joint types are the basic categories that classify joints according to their functions and forms. BS 6093 defines four main joint types for building construction:



  • Type 1 - Construction joint: This is a joint that occurs between two adjacent parts of the same material or component during construction. For example, a joint between two concrete slabs or two brick walls.



  • Type 2 - Movement joint: This is a joint that occurs between two different materials or components that have different rates of movement due to thermal, moisture or other effects. For example, a joint between a concrete slab and a steel beam or a brick wall and a timber frame.



  • Type 3 - Isolation joint: This is a joint that occurs between two parts of a building that have different functions or loads. For example, a joint between a structural frame and a non-structural cladding or a joint between a floor slab and a partition wall.



  • Type 4 - Separation joint: This is a joint that occurs between two parts of a building that are required to be separated for fire, acoustic or other reasons. For example, a joint between two fire compartments or two noise-sensitive areas.



Joint mechanisms




The joint mechanisms are the basic modes of operation that describe how joints allow or constrain relative movement between the connected parts. BS 6093 defines four main joint mechanisms for building construction:



  • Fixed: This is a mechanism that does not allow any relative movement between the connected parts. For example, a welded joint or a rigid connection.



  • Hinged: This is a mechanism that allows relative rotation around a single axis between the connected parts. For example, a revolute pair or a pin connection.



  • Sliding: This is a mechanism that allows relative translation along a single direction between the connected parts. For example, a prismatic pair or a sliding connection.



  • Flexible: This is a mechanism that allows relative deformation in any direction between the connected parts. For example, a sealant or a gasket.



Joint performance and durability




The joint performance and durability are the measures of how well joints meet the functional requirements and how long they last under service conditions. BS 6093 provides guidance on how to assess and improve the performance and durability of joints based on various factors, such as:



  • Load capacity: This is the ability of joints to resist the applied loads without failure or excessive deformation. It depends on the strength and stiffness of the jointing materials and the design of the joint geometry.



  • Movement capacity: This is the ability of joints to accommodate the expected movements without loss of function or damage. It depends on the elasticity and flexibility of the jointing materials and the design of the joint gap.



  • Water tightness: This is the ability of joints to prevent water ingress and egress through the joint gap. It depends on the impermeability and adhesion of the jointing materials and the design of the joint profile.



  • Air tightness: This is the ability of joints to prevent air leakage and infiltration through the joint gap. It depends on the impermeability and adhesion of the jointing materials and the design of the joint profile.



  • Thermal insulation: This is the ability of joints to prevent heat loss and gain through the joint gap. It depends on the thermal conductivity and expansion of the jointing materials and the design of the joint width.



  • Aesthetic quality: This is the ability of joints to enhance the appearance and visual quality of the joint and the building. It depends on the colour, texture, pattern, shape, size and alignment of the jointing materials and the design of the joint layout.



Jointing materials




The jointing materials are the substances that fill or cover the joint gap between the connected parts. They have to perform various functions, such as sealing, bonding, reinforcing, insulating, decorating, etc. BS 6093 provides guidance on the types and properties of jointing materials and how to select and apply them.


Types of jointing materials




BS 6093 identifies four main types of jointing materials for building construction:



  • Sealants: These are flexible materials that seal the joint gap against water, air and other environmental agents. They can also accommodate movement and provide aesthetic quality. Sealants can be classified into different types based on their chemical composition, such as acrylics, silicones, polyurethanes, polysulfides, etc.



  • Gaskets: These are preformed materials that seal the joint gap by compression between two rigid surfaces. They can also accommodate movement and provide thermal insulation. Gaskets can be made of various materials, such as rubber, cork, metal, plastic, etc.



  • Baffles: These are rigid or semi-rigid materials that form a barrier across the joint gap to prevent water ingress and egress. They can also provide air tightness and thermal insulation. Baffles can be made of various materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, etc.



  • Rain screens: These are open or perforated materials that cover the joint gap to allow ventilation and drainage while preventing direct rain penetration. They can also provide aesthetic quality and thermal insulation. Rain screens can be made of various materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, etc.



Properties of jointing materials




The properties of jointing materials are the characteristics that determine their suitability and performance for different joints and applications. BS 6093 provides guidance on how to assess and compare the properties of jointing materials based on various factors, such as:



  • Compatibility: This is the ability of jointing materials to adhere to and interact with the substrates and other jointing materials without causing adverse effects. It depends on the chemical compatibility and physical compatibility of the jointing materials.



  • Elasticity: This is the ability of jointing materials to deform under load and return to their original shape when the load is removed. It depends on the modulus of elasticity and elongation at break of the jointing materials.



  • Flexibility: This is the ability of jointing materials to deform under load without cracking or breaking. It depends on the flexibility index and crack bridging ability of the jointing materials.



  • Impermeability: This is the ability of jointing materials to resist the passage of water, air and other environmental agents through their mass or along their interfaces. It depends on the water vapour permeability and air leakage rate of the jointing materials.



  • Thermal conductivity: This is the ability of jointing materials to transfer heat through their mass or along their interfaces. It depends on the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of the jointing materials.



  • Aesthetic quality: This is the ability of jointing materials to enhance the appearance and visual quality of the joint and the building. It depends on the colour, texture, pattern, shape, size and alignment of the jointing materials and the design of the joint layout.



Selection and application of jointing materials




The selection and application of jointing materials are the processes that involve choosing the most suitable jointing materials for each joint and applying them correctly and effectively. BS 6093 provides guidance on how to select and apply jointing materials based on various factors, such as:



  • Compatibility: The jointing materials should be compatible with the substrates and other jointing materials in terms of chemical and physical properties. The compatibility should be tested before use by conducting adhesion tests, compatibility tests and service tests.



  • Elasticity: The jointing materials should have sufficient elasticity to accommodate the expected movement in the joint without cracking or losing adhesion. The elasticity should be matched to the movement capacity of the joint by using appropriate joint dimensions and modulus of elasticity.



  • Flexibility: The jointing materials should have sufficient flexibility to deform under load without cracking or breaking. The flexibility should be matched to the load capacity of the joint by using appropriate flexibility index and crack bridging ability.



  • Impermeability: The jointing materials should have sufficient impermeability to resist the passage of water, air and other environmental agents through their mass or along their interfaces. The impermeability should be matched to the environmental requirements of the joint by using appropriate water vapour permeability and air leakage rate.



  • Thermal conductivity: The jointing materials should have sufficient thermal conductivity to transfer heat through their mass or along their interfaces. The thermal conductivity should be matched to the thermal requirements of the joint by using appropriate thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient.



  • Aesthetic quality: The jointing materials should have sufficient aesthetic quality to enhance the appearance and visual quality of the joint and the building. The aesthetic quality should be matched to the aesthetic preferences and standards of the joint by using appropriate colour, texture, pattern, shape, size and alignment.



The application of jointing materials should follow the best practices and recommendations provided by BS 6093 and the manufacturers of the jointing materials. Some general guidelines for applying jointing materials are:



  • Preparation: The substrates and other jointing materials should be prepared before applying the jointing materials. This may involve cleaning, drying, priming, masking, etc.



  • Mixing: The jointing materials should be mixed according to the instructions provided by the manufacturers. This may involve stirring, shaking, kneading, etc.



  • Filling: The joint gap should be filled with the jointing materials using appropriate tools and techniques. This may involve caulking, injecting, pressing, etc.



  • Finishing: The surface of the joint should be finished with the jointing materials using appropriate tools and techniques. This may involve smoothing, tooling, trimming, etc.



  • Curing: The jointing materials should be cured according to the instructions provided by the manufacturers. This may involve drying, setting, hardening, etc.



Generation of solutions for joints of external walls and roofs




The generation of solutions for joints of external walls and roofs is a process that involves designing joints that meet the functional requirements and provide solutions for external walls and roofs. It covers the basic principles and methods for designing joints of external walls and roofs and how to use sealants, gaskets, baffles and rain screens for these joints. It also provides some examples of joints of external walls and roofs in different building materials and systems.


Principles and methods for designing joints of external walls and roofs




The principles and methods for designing joints of external walls and roofs are based on the following considerations:



  • Joint function: The joints of external walls and roofs have to perform various functions, such as transferring loads, accommodating movements, preventing water ingress, enhancing aesthetics, etc. The joint function should be defined and prioritized based on the functional requirements.



  • Joint type: The joints of external walls and roofs can be classified into different types based on their functions and forms, such as construction joints, movement joints, isolation joints, separation joints, etc. The joint type should be selected based on the joint function.



  • Joint mechanism: The joints of external walls and roofs can have different mechanisms that describe how they allow or constrain relative movement between the connected parts, such as fixed, hinged, sliding, flexible, etc. The joint mechanism should be selected based on the joint type.



Joint dimension: The joints of external walls and roofs have to have appropriate dimensions that determine their performance and durability. The joint dimension should be calculated based on the joint


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