In physics, a vapor (American English) or vapour (British English and Canadian English; see spelling differences) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature, which means that the vapor can be condensed to a liquid by increasing the pressure on it without reducing the temperature of the vapor. A vapor is different from an aerosol. An aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid, or both within a gas.
For example, water has a critical temperature of 647 K (374 C; 705 F), which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist at any pressure. In the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures gaseous water (known as water vapor) will condense into a liquid if its partial pressure is increased sufficiently.
A vapor may co-exist with a liquid (or a solid). When this is true, the two phases will be in equilibrium, and the gas-partial pressure will be equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid (or solid).
Vapor refers to a gas phase at a temperature where the same substance can also exist in the liquid or solid state, below the critical temperature of the substance. (For example, water has a critical temperature of 374 C (647 K), which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can exist.) If the vapor is in contact with a liquid or solid phase, the two phases will be in a state of equilibrium. The term gas refers to a compressible fluid phase. Fixed gases are gases for which no liquid or solid can form at the temperature of the gas, such as air at typical ambient temperatures. A liquid or solid does not have to boil to release a vapor.
The vapor pressure is the equilibrium pressure from a liquid or a solid at a specific temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid or solid is not affected by the amount of contact with the liquid or solid interface.
For two-phase systems (e.g., two liquid phases), the vapor pressure of the individual phases are equal. In the absence of stronger inter-species attractions between like-like or like-unlike molecules, the vapor pressure follows Raoult's law, which states that the partial pressure of each component is the product of the vapor pressure of the pure component and its mole fraction in the mixture. The total vapor pressure is the sum of the component partial pressures.
Since it is in the gas phase, the amount of vapor present is quantified by the partial pressure of the gas. Also, vapors obey the barometric formula in a gravitational field, just as conventional atmospheric gases do.
Speakers of the English language, mindful of the lightness and unsubstantiality of floating air and gas, have put several airy words to good use over the years to describe the act of talking idly or boastfully. The earliest such word is blow (as in "he kept blowing about his new job"), which drifted into English sometime about 1400. Vapor wafted into the language in the 1620s, and a little over 200 years later windbags, later also known as gasbags, not only blew and vapored but also gassed about anything they could.
Figure 1: Migration of Soil Vapors to Indoor AirThis figure depicts the migration of vapors in soil gas from contaminated soil and groundwater into buildings. Vapors in soil gas are shown to enter buildings through cracks in the foundation and openings for utility lines. Atmospheric conditions and building ventilation are shown to influence soil gas intrusion. Vapor intrusion occurs when there is a migration of vapor-forming chemicals from any subsurface source into an overlying building. Recognition of soil vapor intrusion to buildings and other enclosed spaces occurred in the 1980s with concerns over radon intrusion. Subsequently, there was an increasing awareness that anthropogenic chemicals (e.g., petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents) in soil, groundwater, and sewers and drainlines could also pose threats to indoor air quality via the vapor intrusion pathway.
In buildings with lower concentrations of vapor-forming chemicals arising from vapor intrusion, the main concern is whether the chemicals may pose an unacceptable risk of health effects due to long-term (i.e., chronic) exposure to these lower levels.
A 20% supplemental sales tax is imposed on retail sales of vapor products in New York. The tax is collected by a vapor products dealer. Any business that intends to sell vapor products must be registered as a vapor products dealer before making sales of vapor products.
Any business currently selling vapor products at retail must be registered with the Tax Department as a vapor products dealer. Businesses that intend to sell vapor products must register before they begin selling these products. The nonrefundable application fees for a Vapor Products Dealer Certificate of Registration are:
Note: If you sell cigarettes and tobacco products, you must also register as a vapor products dealer if you make retail sales of vapor products. Form DTF-720, Retail Dealer Certificate of Registration for Cigarettes and Tobacco Products and/or Form DTF-721, Vending Machine Registration Certificate for Cigarettes and Tobacco Products does not allow you to sell vapor products.
To register with the Tax Department, you must complete an online application and obtain a Vapor Products Dealer Certificate of Registration for each retail location, online location or vending machine where vapor products are sold.
If you are not a registered sales tax vendor, you must register for sales tax before registering as a vapor products dealer. You can apply to register for sales tax through New York Business Express. For more information, see Tax Bulletin How to Register for New York State Sales Tax (TB-ST-360).
A vapor products dealer must separately state on the customer's receipt the 20% supplemental sales tax. In addition, a vapor products dealer must only charge sales tax on the retail price of the vapor product. The 20% supplemental sales tax is not included in the receipt subject to sales tax.
Any person, including a vapor products dealer, that sells vapor products at an unregistered location or while a registration for such retail location is suspended or revoked, may be subject to a civil fine and suspension or revocation of its Vapor Products Dealer Certificate(s) of Registration. The following penalties may apply:
If a third violation occurs within 5 years of a prior violation, the Tax Department may refuse to issue a Vapor Products Dealer Certificate of Registration; and/or revoke all certificate(s) of registration issued to each place of business owned or operated by the vapor products dealer, for a period of up to 5 years.
E-liquid is subject to the supplemental sales tax regardless of whether it is sold separately or together with the battery and/or charger. If the battery and/or charger are sold separately from the e-liquid, the battery and charger are not subject to the supplemental sales tax imposed on vapor products.
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The Division of Waste Management (DWM) has developed guidance for environmental professionals and internal staff to assist in the investigation and evaluation of vapor intrusion at contaminated sites.
This guidance is applicable anywhere a vapor intrusion investigation is warranted by a program in DWM, except for the Underground Storage Tanks (UST) Section. Please consult with the DWM program overseeing the investigation for vapor intrusion investigations at sites contaminated with petroleum constituents only. If petroleum constituents are comingled with volatile organic compounds at a site being managed by a DWM program, the DWM Vapor Intrusion Guidance document should be used.
The DWM Vapor Intrusion Guidance document was developed using established guidance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) and other states, modified for the purposes of DWM. The guidance document presents basic vapor intrusion investigation, sampling, evaluation and mitigation approaches. It is intended to complement the rules and policies of DWM's cleanup programs. Any user of the DWM Vapor Intrusion Guidance document should always work in coordination with the appropriate DWM program overseeing the investigation of the site.
The state of science with regards to vapor intrusion is continually evolving; therefore, DWM will make updates to the guidance document as needed in order to continue to protect human health from exposures caused by subsurface vapor intrusion. The guidance document was prepared by DWM in cooperation with the DWM Remediation Team, a technical group comprised of representatives from all sections of DWM. Additionally, the guidance document was reviewed by several outside contractors and vapor intrusion professionals. 041b061a72